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Index » Radio Paradise/General » General Discussion » Hand sanitizer recipe
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KurtfromLaQuinta

KurtfromLaQuinta Avatar

Location: Really deep in the heart of South California
Gender: Male


Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 1:29pm

I read somewhere... in a time way back. That just using water and doing  a thorough scrubbing does a pretty decent job of killing germs.
Almost proven here on the Mythbusters.
ScottFromWyoming

ScottFromWyoming Avatar

Location: Powell
Gender: Male


Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 12:25pm



 Proclivities wrote:


 ScottFromWyoming wrote:

 

Ergo my question.

From proc's link (which I've read before) 



Lipids are, in other words, the Achilles heel of coronaviruses, and soap provides an effective arrow. It is a detergent, which allows it to bridge the gap between water and grease or other fats, Sheets said. (Americans of a certain age may recall the “Dawn takes grease out of your way” tagline for the dishwashing detergent.) Hand soap does the same thing through brute force: it essentially dissolves the lipid envelope of the virus, thereby inactivating it.
...
Just be sure that any hand cleansers include ingredients, like the fats and oils in soap, that can specifically disrupt the coronavirus lipid envelope. “Stick with what’s tried and true: soap and water, hand sanitizer, bleach if it’s a surface,” Sheets said. “Why go exotic? This is not the time to mess around.”
So my working theory is that SoftSoap isn't as good. So we're all gonna die.
 

I'm pretty sure the liquid soaps (Dial, SoftSoap, etc.), and even most dish detergents have fats and oils - almost all of them have glycerin.  Most major manufacturers (Colgate, P&G, etc.) apparently use glycerin derived from beef or pork tallow.  I remember getting lectured about that by customers when I worked at Whole Foods years ago.  I think Tom's of Maine uses a plant-derived one and glycerin can also be petroleum-derived I guess.  There's probably some chemistry types here who know a lot more about it.  Anyhow, SoftSoap apparently has the fats and oils described in the article.
 

WE'RE NOT GONNA DIE!
Proclivities

Proclivities Avatar

Location: Paris of the Piedmont
Gender: Male


Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 12:12pm



 ScottFromWyoming wrote:

 

Ergo my question.

From proc's link (which I've read before) 



Lipids are, in other words, the Achilles heel of coronaviruses, and soap provides an effective arrow. It is a detergent, which allows it to bridge the gap between water and grease or other fats, Sheets said. (Americans of a certain age may recall the “Dawn takes grease out of your way” tagline for the dishwashing detergent.) Hand soap does the same thing through brute force: it essentially dissolves the lipid envelope of the virus, thereby inactivating it.
...
Just be sure that any hand cleansers include ingredients, like the fats and oils in soap, that can specifically disrupt the coronavirus lipid envelope. “Stick with what’s tried and true: soap and water, hand sanitizer, bleach if it’s a surface,” Sheets said. “Why go exotic? This is not the time to mess around.”
So my working theory is that SoftSoap isn't as good. So we're all gonna die.
 

I'm pretty sure the liquid soaps (Dial, SoftSoap, etc.), and even most dish detergents have fats and oils - almost all of them have glycerin.  Most major manufacturers (Colgate, P&G, etc.) apparently use glycerin derived from beef or pork tallow.  I remember getting lectured about that by customers when I worked at Whole Foods years ago.  I think Tom's of Maine uses a plant-derived one and glycerin can also be petroleum-derived I guess.  There's probably some chemistry types here who know a lot more about it.  Anyhow, SoftSoap apparently has the fats and oils described in the article.
ScottFromWyoming

ScottFromWyoming Avatar

Location: Powell
Gender: Male


Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 11:58am



 BlueHeronDruid wrote:


 cc_rider wrote:


 ScottFromWyoming wrote:
I know that most of the time these days, when we say "soap," we include or ONLY mean "liquid detergent hand goop in a pump bottle" but I'm wondering, on a molecule-vs-virus level, which is better? True soap requires warmer water, I think, but do they both destroy the virus the same way? I read one thing that coronaviruses are literally disassembled by "soap" (whatever the writer meant by "soap" I could not tell).
 
Good point. 'Soap' is chemically different than 'detergent'. But do they both work? I googled my 'Fast Orange' hand cleaner and couldn't find a definitive answer as to what's in it, and more importantly, if it kills the bug.
c.

 

"soap" implies lipids.
 

Ergo my question.

From proc's link (which I've read before) 



Lipids are, in other words, the Achilles heel of coronaviruses, and soap provides an effective arrow. It is a detergent, which allows it to bridge the gap between water and grease or other fats, Sheets said. (Americans of a certain age may recall the “Dawn takes grease out of your way” tagline for the dishwashing detergent.) Hand soap does the same thing through brute force: it essentially dissolves the lipid envelope of the virus, thereby inactivating it.
...
Just be sure that any hand cleansers include ingredients, like the fats and oils in soap, that can specifically disrupt the coronavirus lipid envelope. “Stick with what’s tried and true: soap and water, hand sanitizer, bleach if it’s a surface,” Sheets said. “Why go exotic? This is not the time to mess around.”
So my working theory is that SoftSoap isn't as good. So we're all gonna die.
Proclivities

Proclivities Avatar

Location: Paris of the Piedmont
Gender: Male


Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 11:45am



 BlueHeronDruid wrote:


 cc_rider wrote:


 ScottFromWyoming wrote:
I know that most of the time these days, when we say "soap," we include or ONLY mean "liquid detergent hand goop in a pump bottle" but I'm wondering, on a molecule-vs-virus level, which is better? True soap requires warmer water, I think, but do they both destroy the virus the same way? I read one thing that coronaviruses are literally disassembled by "soap" (whatever the writer meant by "soap" I could not tell).
 
Good point. 'Soap' is chemically different than 'detergent'. But do they both work? I googled my 'Fast Orange' hand cleaner and couldn't find a definitive answer as to what's in it, and more importantly, if it kills the bug.
c.
 

"soap" implies lipids.

Thanks BHD...interesting reading..

Lipids are the Achilles heel of coronaviruses. Here's how you find the best arrow.


Hmm, more here...

BlueHeronDruid

BlueHeronDruid Avatar

Location: planting flowers


Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 11:38am



 cc_rider wrote:


 ScottFromWyoming wrote:
I know that most of the time these days, when we say "soap," we include or ONLY mean "liquid detergent hand goop in a pump bottle" but I'm wondering, on a molecule-vs-virus level, which is better? True soap requires warmer water, I think, but do they both destroy the virus the same way? I read one thing that coronaviruses are literally disassembled by "soap" (whatever the writer meant by "soap" I could not tell).
 
Good point. 'Soap' is chemically different than 'detergent'. But do they both work? I googled my 'Fast Orange' hand cleaner and couldn't find a definitive answer as to what's in it, and more importantly, if it kills the bug.
c.

 

"soap" implies lipids.
cc_rider

cc_rider Avatar

Location: Bastrop
Gender: Male


Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 8:35am



 ScottFromWyoming wrote:
I know that most of the time these days, when we say "soap," we include or ONLY mean "liquid detergent hand goop in a pump bottle" but I'm wondering, on a molecule-vs-virus level, which is better? True soap requires warmer water, I think, but do they both destroy the virus the same way? I read one thing that coronaviruses are literally disassembled by "soap" (whatever the writer meant by "soap" I could not tell).
 
Good point. 'Soap' is chemically different than 'detergent'. But do they both work? I googled my 'Fast Orange' hand cleaner and couldn't find a definitive answer as to what's in it, and more importantly, if it kills the bug.
c.

kcar

kcar Avatar



Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 8:28am



 ShamPh0t wrote:

Yup, soap is where it's at - until we're not where soap is. Fill a small bottle, stick it in your pocket for when you need it.
That's why I posted the formula. 



 cc_rider wrote:


 sirdroseph wrote:
 kcar wrote:


Why Soap Works

At the molecular level, soap breaks things apart. At the level of society, it helps hold everything together.

 

...




People typically think of soap as gentle and soothing, but from the perspective of microorganisms, it is often extremely destructive. A drop of ordinary soap diluted in water is sufficient to rupture and kill many types of bacteria and viruses, including the new coronavirus that is currently circling the globe. The secret to soap’s impressive might is its hybrid structure.

Soap is made of pin-shaped molecules, each of which has a hydrophilic head — it readily bonds with water — and a hydrophobic tail, which shuns water and prefers to link up with oils and fats. These molecules, when suspended in water, alternately float about as solitary units, interact with other molecules in the solution and assemble themselves into little bubbles called micelles, with heads pointing outward and tails tucked inside.

Some bacteria and viruses have lipid membranes that resemble double-layered micelles with two bands of hydrophobic tails sandwiched between two rings of hydrophilic heads. These membranes are studded with important proteins that allow viruses to infect cells and perform vital tasks that keep bacteria alive. Pathogens wrapped in lipid membranes include coronaviruses, H.I.V., the viruses that cause hepatitis B and C, herpes, Ebola, Zika, dengue, and numerous bacteria that attack the intestines and respiratory tract.


When you wash your hands with soap and water, you surround any microorganisms on your skin with soap molecules. The hydrophobic tails of the free-floating soap molecules attempt to evade water; in the process, they wedge themselves into the lipid envelopes of certain microbes and viruses, prying them apart.

“They act like crowbars and destabilize the whole system,” said Prof. Pall Thordarson, acting head of chemistry at the University of New South Wales. Essential proteins spill from the ruptured membranes into the surrounding water, killing the bacteria and rendering the viruses useless.

In tandem, some soap molecules disrupt the chemical bonds that allow bacteria, viruses and grime to stick to surfaces, lifting them off the skin. Micelles can also form around particles of dirt and fragments of viruses and bacteria, suspending them in floating cages. When you rinse your hands, all the microorganisms that have been damaged, trapped and killed by soap molecules are washed away.

On the whole, hand sanitizers are not as reliable as soap. Sanitizers with at least 60 percent ethanol do act similarly, defeating bacteria and viruses by destabilizing their lipid membranes. But they cannot easily remove microorganisms from the skin. There are also viruses that do not depend on lipid membranes to infect cells, as well as bacteria that protect their delicate membranes with sturdy shields of protein and sugar. Examples include bacteria that can cause meningitis, pneumonia, diarrhea and skin infections, as well as the hepatitis A virus, poliovirus, rhinoviruses and adenoviruses (frequent causes of the common cold).

These more resilient microbes are generally less susceptible to the chemical onslaught of ethanol and soap. But vigorous scrubbing with soap and water can still expunge these microbes from the skin, which is partly why hand-washing is more effective than sanitizer. Alcohol-based sanitizer is a good backup when soap and water are not accessible.

 
Yep. Soap is where its at.
{#Yes}
 Because... SCIENCE!

I have a big jug of Fast Orange hand cleaner, seems like it would work too. If nothing else the pumice should grind the little beasties into submission.
c.

 


 
Hey, ShamPhot—no need for the raspberry! Again, thank you for posting the recipe. Yes, there will be times and places where soap and/or water isn't available, and that's when your recipe might really help keep people healthy. 

Right now my neck of the woods isn't seeing a huge run on soap but you'd think toilet paper was made of gold. Paper towels and tissues you can find but TP is MIA.

ScottFromWyoming

ScottFromWyoming Avatar

Location: Powell
Gender: Male


Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 7:38am

I know that most of the time these days, when we say "soap," we include or ONLY mean "liquid detergent hand goop in a pump bottle" but I'm wondering, on a molecule-vs-virus level, which is better? True soap requires warmer water, I think, but do they both destroy the virus the same way? I read one thing that coronaviruses are literally disassembled by "soap" (whatever the writer meant by "soap" I could not tell).
ShamPh0t

ShamPh0t Avatar



Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 7:32am


Yup, soap is where it's at - until we're not where soap is. Fill a small bottle, stick it in your pocket for when you need it.
That's why I posted the formula. 


 cc_rider wrote:


 sirdroseph wrote:
 kcar wrote:


Why Soap Works

At the molecular level, soap breaks things apart. At the level of society, it helps hold everything together.

 

...




People typically think of soap as gentle and soothing, but from the perspective of microorganisms, it is often extremely destructive. A drop of ordinary soap diluted in water is sufficient to rupture and kill many types of bacteria and viruses, including the new coronavirus that is currently circling the globe. The secret to soap’s impressive might is its hybrid structure.

Soap is made of pin-shaped molecules, each of which has a hydrophilic head — it readily bonds with water — and a hydrophobic tail, which shuns water and prefers to link up with oils and fats. These molecules, when suspended in water, alternately float about as solitary units, interact with other molecules in the solution and assemble themselves into little bubbles called micelles, with heads pointing outward and tails tucked inside.

Some bacteria and viruses have lipid membranes that resemble double-layered micelles with two bands of hydrophobic tails sandwiched between two rings of hydrophilic heads. These membranes are studded with important proteins that allow viruses to infect cells and perform vital tasks that keep bacteria alive. Pathogens wrapped in lipid membranes include coronaviruses, H.I.V., the viruses that cause hepatitis B and C, herpes, Ebola, Zika, dengue, and numerous bacteria that attack the intestines and respiratory tract.


When you wash your hands with soap and water, you surround any microorganisms on your skin with soap molecules. The hydrophobic tails of the free-floating soap molecules attempt to evade water; in the process, they wedge themselves into the lipid envelopes of certain microbes and viruses, prying them apart.

“They act like crowbars and destabilize the whole system,” said Prof. Pall Thordarson, acting head of chemistry at the University of New South Wales. Essential proteins spill from the ruptured membranes into the surrounding water, killing the bacteria and rendering the viruses useless.

In tandem, some soap molecules disrupt the chemical bonds that allow bacteria, viruses and grime to stick to surfaces, lifting them off the skin. Micelles can also form around particles of dirt and fragments of viruses and bacteria, suspending them in floating cages. When you rinse your hands, all the microorganisms that have been damaged, trapped and killed by soap molecules are washed away.

On the whole, hand sanitizers are not as reliable as soap. Sanitizers with at least 60 percent ethanol do act similarly, defeating bacteria and viruses by destabilizing their lipid membranes. But they cannot easily remove microorganisms from the skin. There are also viruses that do not depend on lipid membranes to infect cells, as well as bacteria that protect their delicate membranes with sturdy shields of protein and sugar. Examples include bacteria that can cause meningitis, pneumonia, diarrhea and skin infections, as well as the hepatitis A virus, poliovirus, rhinoviruses and adenoviruses (frequent causes of the common cold).

These more resilient microbes are generally less susceptible to the chemical onslaught of ethanol and soap. But vigorous scrubbing with soap and water can still expunge these microbes from the skin, which is partly why hand-washing is more effective than sanitizer. Alcohol-based sanitizer is a good backup when soap and water are not accessible.

 
Yep. Soap is where its at.
{#Yes}
 Because... SCIENCE!

I have a big jug of Fast Orange hand cleaner, seems like it would work too. If nothing else the pumice should grind the little beasties into submission.
c.

 


cc_rider

cc_rider Avatar

Location: Bastrop
Gender: Male


Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 7:23am



 sirdroseph wrote:
 kcar wrote:


Why Soap Works

At the molecular level, soap breaks things apart. At the level of society, it helps hold everything together.

 

...




People typically think of soap as gentle and soothing, but from the perspective of microorganisms, it is often extremely destructive. A drop of ordinary soap diluted in water is sufficient to rupture and kill many types of bacteria and viruses, including the new coronavirus that is currently circling the globe. The secret to soap’s impressive might is its hybrid structure.

Soap is made of pin-shaped molecules, each of which has a hydrophilic head — it readily bonds with water — and a hydrophobic tail, which shuns water and prefers to link up with oils and fats. These molecules, when suspended in water, alternately float about as solitary units, interact with other molecules in the solution and assemble themselves into little bubbles called micelles, with heads pointing outward and tails tucked inside.

Some bacteria and viruses have lipid membranes that resemble double-layered micelles with two bands of hydrophobic tails sandwiched between two rings of hydrophilic heads. These membranes are studded with important proteins that allow viruses to infect cells and perform vital tasks that keep bacteria alive. Pathogens wrapped in lipid membranes include coronaviruses, H.I.V., the viruses that cause hepatitis B and C, herpes, Ebola, Zika, dengue, and numerous bacteria that attack the intestines and respiratory tract.


When you wash your hands with soap and water, you surround any microorganisms on your skin with soap molecules. The hydrophobic tails of the free-floating soap molecules attempt to evade water; in the process, they wedge themselves into the lipid envelopes of certain microbes and viruses, prying them apart.

“They act like crowbars and destabilize the whole system,” said Prof. Pall Thordarson, acting head of chemistry at the University of New South Wales. Essential proteins spill from the ruptured membranes into the surrounding water, killing the bacteria and rendering the viruses useless.

In tandem, some soap molecules disrupt the chemical bonds that allow bacteria, viruses and grime to stick to surfaces, lifting them off the skin. Micelles can also form around particles of dirt and fragments of viruses and bacteria, suspending them in floating cages. When you rinse your hands, all the microorganisms that have been damaged, trapped and killed by soap molecules are washed away.

On the whole, hand sanitizers are not as reliable as soap. Sanitizers with at least 60 percent ethanol do act similarly, defeating bacteria and viruses by destabilizing their lipid membranes. But they cannot easily remove microorganisms from the skin. There are also viruses that do not depend on lipid membranes to infect cells, as well as bacteria that protect their delicate membranes with sturdy shields of protein and sugar. Examples include bacteria that can cause meningitis, pneumonia, diarrhea and skin infections, as well as the hepatitis A virus, poliovirus, rhinoviruses and adenoviruses (frequent causes of the common cold).

These more resilient microbes are generally less susceptible to the chemical onslaught of ethanol and soap. But vigorous scrubbing with soap and water can still expunge these microbes from the skin, which is partly why hand-washing is more effective than sanitizer. Alcohol-based sanitizer is a good backup when soap and water are not accessible.

 
Yep. Soap is where its at.
{#Yes}
 Because... SCIENCE!

I have a big jug of Fast Orange hand cleaner, seems like it would work too. If nothing else the pumice should grind the little beasties into submission.
c.

sirdroseph

sirdroseph Avatar

Location: Yes
Gender: Male


Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 4:16am

 kcar wrote:


 ShamPh0t wrote:
I figured out how to make hand disinfectant!
Denatured alcohol (Brennspiritus in German), available in hardware stores and camping suppliers, is nothing but alcohol, the main ingredient of expensive and no longer available Sterilium hand sanitizer.
Here's the recipe, based on a WHO mix and reduced in volume:

833 ml Ethanol, AKA  denatured alcohol(96 % Vol.) – alternatively 752 ml Isopropyl alcohol (99,8 % Vol.) My camping fuel was at 94%, so I rounded up to 850 ml - and please, don't mix this up with gasoline based camping fuel!!!
42 ml hydrogen peroxide (3%) - this is peroxide based contact lens solution
15 ml Glycerin
110 ml distilled water – if you're using Isopropyl alcohol 192 ml distilled water

measuring cup - alternatively you can fake it to avoid ruining kitchen items by pre-measuring in any small glass container (I used a tea light) using a table spoon (15ml) and water and marking the heights of 42ml and 15ml
small cosmetic travel bottles

The mix I found here (sorry about the German - it's where I live. Translations are of course availabe - try www.Deepl.com): https://www.smarticular.net/desinfektionsmittel-selber-machen-who-rezept/amp/

Hey, I hope this helps. Please re-post as needed. Stay healthy, stay happy, and applause to Bill and Rebecca for helping out with the stay calm part!
Greetings from a loyal listener in Hamburg!
Eric
 

Thanks for the recipe! 
As this New York Times article points out, ordinary soap is extremely effective at fighting pathogens like the coronavirus. As the article explains, hand sanitizers are not as effective as soap. 

Since the Times is providing free access to articles about the coronavirus pandemic and how to deal with it, you should be able to read the whole article even if you don't have a subscription to the Times.  What I've posted is just an excerpt and lacks the cool graphics. 

Why Soap Works

At the molecular level, soap breaks things apart. At the level of society, it helps hold everything together.

 

...


People typically think of soap as gentle and soothing, but from the perspective of microorganisms, it is often extremely destructive. A drop of ordinary soap diluted in water is sufficient to rupture and kill many types of bacteria and viruses, including the new coronavirus that is currently circling the globe. The secret to soap’s impressive might is its hybrid structure.

Soap is made of pin-shaped molecules, each of which has a hydrophilic head — it readily bonds with water — and a hydrophobic tail, which shuns water and prefers to link up with oils and fats. These molecules, when suspended in water, alternately float about as solitary units, interact with other molecules in the solution and assemble themselves into little bubbles called micelles, with heads pointing outward and tails tucked inside.

Some bacteria and viruses have lipid membranes that resemble double-layered micelles with two bands of hydrophobic tails sandwiched between two rings of hydrophilic heads. These membranes are studded with important proteins that allow viruses to infect cells and perform vital tasks that keep bacteria alive. Pathogens wrapped in lipid membranes include coronaviruses, H.I.V., the viruses that cause hepatitis B and C, herpes, Ebola, Zika, dengue, and numerous bacteria that attack the intestines and respiratory tract.


When you wash your hands with soap and water, you surround any microorganisms on your skin with soap molecules. The hydrophobic tails of the free-floating soap molecules attempt to evade water; in the process, they wedge themselves into the lipid envelopes of certain microbes and viruses, prying them apart.

“They act like crowbars and destabilize the whole system,” said Prof. Pall Thordarson, acting head of chemistry at the University of New South Wales. Essential proteins spill from the ruptured membranes into the surrounding water, killing the bacteria and rendering the viruses useless.

In tandem, some soap molecules disrupt the chemical bonds that allow bacteria, viruses and grime to stick to surfaces, lifting them off the skin. Micelles can also form around particles of dirt and fragments of viruses and bacteria, suspending them in floating cages. When you rinse your hands, all the microorganisms that have been damaged, trapped and killed by soap molecules are washed away.

On the whole, hand sanitizers are not as reliable as soap. Sanitizers with at least 60 percent ethanol do act similarly, defeating bacteria and viruses by destabilizing their lipid membranes. But they cannot easily remove microorganisms from the skin. There are also viruses that do not depend on lipid membranes to infect cells, as well as bacteria that protect their delicate membranes with sturdy shields of protein and sugar. Examples include bacteria that can cause meningitis, pneumonia, diarrhea and skin infections, as well as the hepatitis A virus, poliovirus, rhinoviruses and adenoviruses (frequent causes of the common cold).

These more resilient microbes are generally less susceptible to the chemical onslaught of ethanol and soap. But vigorous scrubbing with soap and water can still expunge these microbes from the skin, which is partly why hand-washing is more effective than sanitizer. Alcohol-based sanitizer is a good backup when soap and water are not accessible.

 
Yep. Soap is where its at.{#Yes}
kcar

kcar Avatar



Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 3:48am



 ShamPh0t wrote:
I figured out how to make hand disinfectant!
Denatured alcohol (Brennspiritus in German), available in hardware stores and camping suppliers, is nothing but alcohol, the main ingredient of expensive and no longer available Sterilium hand sanitizer.
Here's the recipe, based on a WHO mix and reduced in volume:

833 ml Ethanol, AKA  denatured alcohol(96 % Vol.) – alternatively 752 ml Isopropyl alcohol (99,8 % Vol.) My camping fuel was at 94%, so I rounded up to 850 ml - and please, don't mix this up with gasoline based camping fuel!!!
42 ml hydrogen peroxide (3%) - this is peroxide based contact lens solution
15 ml Glycerin
110 ml distilled water â€“ if you're using Isopropyl alcohol 192 ml distilled water

measuring cup - alternatively you can fake it to avoid ruining kitchen items by pre-measuring in any small glass container (I used a tea light) using a table spoon (15ml) and water and marking the heights of 42ml and 15ml
small cosmetic travel bottles

The mix I found here (sorry about the German - it's where I live. Translations are of course availabe - try www.Deepl.com): https://www.smarticular.net/desinfektionsmittel-selber-machen-who-rezept/amp/

Hey, I hope this helps. Please re-post as needed. Stay healthy, stay happy, and applause to Bill and Rebecca for helping out with the stay calm part!
Greetings from a loyal listener in Hamburg!
Eric
 

Thanks for the recipe! 


As this New York Times article points out, ordinary soap is extremely effective at fighting pathogens like the coronavirus. As the article explains, hand sanitizers are not as effective as soap. 

Since the Times is providing free access to articles about the coronavirus pandemic and how to deal with it, you should be able to read the whole article even if you don't have a subscription to the Times.  What I've posted is just an excerpt and lacks the cool graphics. 


Why Soap Works

At the molecular level, soap breaks things apart. At the level of society, it helps hold everything together.

...


People typically think of soap as gentle and soothing, but from the perspective of microorganisms, it is often extremely destructive. A drop of ordinary soap diluted in water is sufficient to rupture and kill many types of bacteria and viruses, including the new coronavirus that is currently circling the globe. The secret to soap’s impressive might is its hybrid structure.

Soap is made of pin-shaped molecules, each of which has a hydrophilic head — it readily bonds with water — and a hydrophobic tail, which shuns water and prefers to link up with oils and fats. These molecules, when suspended in water, alternately float about as solitary units, interact with other molecules in the solution and assemble themselves into little bubbles called micelles, with heads pointing outward and tails tucked inside.

Some bacteria and viruses have lipid membranes that resemble double-layered micelles with two bands of hydrophobic tails sandwiched between two rings of hydrophilic heads. These membranes are studded with important proteins that allow viruses to infect cells and perform vital tasks that keep bacteria alive. Pathogens wrapped in lipid membranes include coronaviruses, H.I.V., the viruses that cause hepatitis B and C, herpes, Ebola, Zika, dengue, and numerous bacteria that attack the intestines and respiratory tract.


When you wash your hands with soap and water, you surround any microorganisms on your skin with soap molecules. The hydrophobic tails of the free-floating soap molecules attempt to evade water; in the process, they wedge themselves into the lipid envelopes of certain microbes and viruses, prying them apart.

“They act like crowbars and destabilize the whole system,” said Prof. Pall Thordarson, acting head of chemistry at the University of New South Wales. Essential proteins spill from the ruptured membranes into the surrounding water, killing the bacteria and rendering the viruses useless.

In tandem, some soap molecules disrupt the chemical bonds that allow bacteria, viruses and grime to stick to surfaces, lifting them off the skin. Micelles can also form around particles of dirt and fragments of viruses and bacteria, suspending them in floating cages. When you rinse your hands, all the microorganisms that have been damaged, trapped and killed by soap molecules are washed away.

On the whole, hand sanitizers are not as reliable as soap. Sanitizers with at least 60 percent ethanol do act similarly, defeating bacteria and viruses by destabilizing their lipid membranes. But they cannot easily remove microorganisms from the skin. There are also viruses that do not depend on lipid membranes to infect cells, as well as bacteria that protect their delicate membranes with sturdy shields of protein and sugar. Examples include bacteria that can cause meningitis, pneumonia, diarrhea and skin infections, as well as the hepatitis A virus, poliovirus, rhinoviruses and adenoviruses (frequent causes of the common cold).

These more resilient microbes are generally less susceptible to the chemical onslaught of ethanol and soap. But vigorous scrubbing with soap and water can still expunge these microbes from the skin, which is partly why hand-washing is more effective than sanitizer. Alcohol-based sanitizer is a good backup when soap and water are not accessible.

ShamPh0t

ShamPh0t Avatar



Posted: Mar 18, 2020 - 3:02am

I figured out how to make hand disinfectant!
Denatured alcohol (Brennspiritus in German), available in hardware stores and camping suppliers, is nothing but alcohol, the main ingredient of expensive and no longer available Sterilium hand sanitizer.
Here's the recipe, based on a WHO mix and reduced in volume:

833 ml Ethanol, AKA  denatured alcohol(96 % Vol.) – alternatively 752 ml Isopropyl alcohol (99,8 % Vol.) My camping fuel was at 94%, so I rounded up to 850 ml - and please, don't mix this up with gasoline based camping fuel!!!
42 ml hydrogen peroxide (3%) - this is peroxide based contact lens solution
15 ml Glycerin
110 ml distilled water â€“ if you're using Isopropyl alcohol 192 ml distilled water

measuring cup - alternatively you can fake it to avoid ruining kitchen items by pre-measuring in any small glass container (I used a tea light) using a table spoon (15ml) and water and marking the heights of 42ml and 15ml
small cosmetic travel bottles

The mix I found here (sorry about the German - it's where I live. Translations are of course availabe - try www.Deepl.com): https://www.smarticular.net/desinfektionsmittel-selber-machen-who-rezept/amp/

Hey, I hope this helps. Please re-post as needed. Stay healthy, stay happy, and applause to Bill and Rebecca for helping out with the stay calm part!
Greetings from a loyal listener in Hamburg!
Eric